Site items in: Production Efficiency

High-productivity electrosynthesis of ammonia from dinitrogen

The so-called lithium redox-mediated nitrogen reduction reaction presents the only known process enabling genuine electrochemical conversion of N2 to ammonia. Notwithstanding the rapidly increasing investigative efforts, the commonly reported performances of the Li-mediated N2 electroreduction, viz. yield rate, current-to-ammonia (faradaic) efficiency and durability in operation, still pertain to the domain of academic research rather than practical development. Our most recent work focused on redesigning the key components of the electrolytic N2 reduction cell enabled breakthroughs in all the key metrics of the process. Specifically, we have introduced a stable proton shuttle based on the phosphonium cation that delivers protons to…

Arpa-E Refuel Program: Distributed Production of Ammonia and Its Conversion to Energy

Ammonia, which has high energy density in easily produced liquid form and can be converted to electric or motive power, is considered to be an almost ideal non-carbon energy vector in addition to its common use as a fertilizer. It can be manufactured anywhere using the Haber-Bosch process, effectively stored, transported and used in combustion engines and fuel cells as well as a hydrogen carrier. Transition from fossil fuels as the energy source and feedstock to intermittent renewable energy sources will require a shift from large scale Haber-Bosch plants (1,000 – 1,500 t/day) to distributed ammonia production matching electrical power…

Solar Hydrogen and Ammonia System Status

Further development results of the Raphael Schmuecker Memorial Solar Hydrogen and Ammonia prototype plant, discussing making of Nitrogen and Ammonia, the energy usage, and the general system efficiencies and output. We would also like to discuss our results of dyno testing the Hydrogen / Hydrogen & Ammonia tractor engine and further developments in ammonia fuel vaporization.