Starfire Energy is developing a fast-ramping reactor for making CO2-free NH3 for fuel, energy storage, and agricultural applications. A fast-ramping reactor is desired to follow (a) variable electricity generation from CO2-free sources such wind and solar power plants or (b) variable availability from CO2-free baseload electricity generation such as nuclear or hydroelectric power plants. The reactor builds upon the Haber-Bosch process by (a) introducing a higher activity supported Ru catalyst (over 4.5 mmol g-1 h-1 at 1 atm and over 45 mmol g-1 h-1 at 10 atm) and (b) further enhancing the catalysis by applying an electric potential or electric…
Ammonia as well as being an important fertiliser is being increasingly considered as an easily transported carrier of hydrogen energy. However, the traditional Haber-Bosch process for the production of ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen and fossil fuels is a high temperature and pressure process that is energy intensive. Newer technology is being investigated to produce sustainable ammonia from green energy. An ambient temperature, electrochemical synthesis of ammonia is an attractive alternative approach, but has, to date, not been achieved at high efficiency. Researchers from Monash University have obtained faradaic efficiency as high as 60% using liquid salt electrolytes under ambient conditions,…
Further development results of the Raphael Schmuecker Memorial Solar Hydrogen and Ammonia prototype plant, discussing making of Nitrogen and Ammonia, the energy usage, and the general system efficiencies and output. We would also like to discuss our results of dyno testing the Hydrogen / Hydrogen & Ammonia tractor engine and further developments in ammonia fuel vaporization.
The talk will show why food security is as important as national security, and how the transition from brown NH3 to green NH3 (produced with renewable energy and without carbon) is necessary for food security. This transition will set the stage for green NH3 to be used for energy storage and then a fuel source.
At present, ammonia is mostly formed through reforming of natural gas (CH4). A 1,000 ton per day plant is said to consume about 35 GJ of natural gas to produce 1 ton of ammonia (22.5 GJ of enthalpy). About 50% of extra energy is wasted. If 1 ton ammonia is produced through water electrolysis, 22.5 GJ of electricity is necessary theoretically. Here again, extra electric energy must be wasted. The author discusses roughly how the efficiency depends upon the process size and the renewable energy cost.
Making Ammonia Fuel From Alaska’s Abundant Stranded Renewable Energy Bill Leighty, Alaska Applied Sciences, Inc.
NH3 as an Energy Storage Medium — an Island Experiment Laurenz Schmidt and Gordon Richardson, Ocean Energy Institute
Ammonia Fuel Production with Firming Storage from Diverse, Stranded, Renewable Energy Resources Bill Leighty, Alaska Applied Sciences, Inc